Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Is war an inevitable feature of international politics Essay

Is war an inevitable feature of international politics - Essay Example multiplicity of governments are not reduced to one government and international politics transformed to domestic politics." In order for war to begin, a relationship should exist between two parties, as it is a mistake or disagreement in this relationship which leads to war occurrence. So is the growing number of formed relationships due to globalisation increasing the unavoidability of war (1) Fighting is more than only competition between countries, because competition does not inevitably entail a party trying to gain an advantage by dropping their adversary's position. War is more aggressive; it includes conflict and it usually violent. The causes why countries go to war are plentiful and varied; instances include countries going to war to gain or enlarge the territory they possess, in support of other countries, to keep prestige and to defend or advance their economic interests. The goal of war could be disputed to be to show which party is 'stronger' in cases where this is not definite, as weaker countries will frequently be too frightened to fight, and stronger countries won't have a necessity to fight. It was revealed that the closer two countries are in terms of political and cultural features, the lower the opportunity of a war beginning between them. But the great amount of countries around the world means that there is a large quantity of cultures and background, and the alliances formed between like-minded countries are raising the disagreement between the different-minded countries. Donnelly analysed the relationship between international war and the creation of alliances and states that this is where the start of war lies. In general, countries which have lasting formal alliances frequently go through more wars than those nations which do not. And since alliances between major powers often have alliances of other majors powers as opponents, the incidence and size of wars is likely to augment in the following years. (3) There are two main ideas regarding war: that it is natural, and that it is not. The 'rational act' view argues that people are naturally aggressive and hostile, and war is therefore something inherent to humans, and that although war is unpleasant, it is sometimes necessary. Some theorists who regard war as part of human nature have traced it to being a result of our animal descent, or cruelty in an earlier age. Von Bernhadi stated that war is a "biological necessity" and that it was beneficial as it allows the taking away the weaker countries and therefore ensures the continued existence of stronger countries. "War was regarded as a fact of life and as a useful instrument of diplomacy, not as a problem. Peace, considered as an essential condition of international relations, was no preoccupation" (Ceadel 1996) Many European sociologists even consider conflict, and consequently the war, to be serving a positive idea in humanity. On the other hand, in spite of the plentiful claims made about the easiness of war, the facts to support this are too weak. (1) If war is peculiar to humans, then why are wars not conducted between countries at all times Why is it that wars only happen at definite times, and not all the time The contrasting view of war is that it is not innate in humans, but that it is brought about by exterior factors. The examination of the "irrational act"

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Marketing strategy for Blackmore product in Vietnam market Assignment

Marketing strategy for Blackmore product in Vietnam market - Assignment Example Firstly, the entry mode choice of Blackmore Company to entry Vietnam market will be introduced through the joint venture with local organisation as Traphaco which is seen as the big income of selling the vitamins and nutrition products in Hanoi capital of Vietnam. Secondly, SWOT analysis will be coming with the overview of Blackmore’s product based on its brand, quality, technique, product design in order to predict the potential opportunities in Vietnam market. Moreover, analysing Blackmore’ competitors is showed up including: foreign company as Sanofi Aventis of France and Novartis of Switzerland, the local company as Pharbaco of Hanoi and Pharma of Hochiminh city. Furthermore, the company and marketing objectives will be introduced such as providing and contribution the best Australian nutritional product’s quality to Vietnam, creating the brand equity, gaining over 10% of market share in 3 years and standing on top ten biggest suppliers in the nutrition product with vitamins and supplements in medical industry. Next part coming is generic marketing strategies which is focused on branding. In additional, the market segmentation and market positioning will be provided. These task are considered to target consumers such as young, medium and high income class combined with the positioning of product of high quality and price. Finally, this report will be focused on strategies of promotion and product. To sum up the report, the recommendations and conclusion is given. Table of Contents 1. Executive Summary.................................................................................. 2. Table of contents....................................................................................... 3. Introduction............................................................................................... 4. The brief background to Blackmore Company and product. The summary of macro-environment analysis of Vietnam market................................. 5. Entry mode choice.................................................................................... 5.1 Why choose the joint venture to entry? .............................................1... 5.2 Partner selection................................................................................ 6. SWOT analysis............................................... ........................................ 7. Competitor analysis............................................................................... 8. Company objectives, marketing objectives and generic marketing strategies............................................................................................... 8.1. Company objectives....................................................................... 8.2. Marketing objectives....................................................................... 8.3. Generic marketing strategies for Blackmore in Vietnam market..... 9. Market segmentation and brand positioning for Blackmore product....... 9.1. Market segmentation......................................................................... 9.2. Blackmore’s brand positioning........................................................ 10. Marketing mix strategies............................................................................ 10.1. Promotion strategies.................. ....................................................... 10.2. Product strategies............................................................................. 11. Conclusions.................................................................................................. 12. List reference................

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Nature Nurture And Crime Psychology Essay

Nature Nurture And Crime Psychology Essay Questions about crime have been around ever since man first committed it. One of the most questions today is whether criminal behavior is the result of nature or nurture. As the debate continues today, research has shown evidence for both sides. Reports would claim the used of nature vs nurture as a topic that would tell about the significant roles of environment and heredity in human development. Some argue that genetic influences might actually increase the likelihood that an individual will experience certain life events (Rende Plomin, 1992). Thus, certain individuals may have the genetic tendency to experience or seek out certain stressful situations. For example, someone with a genetic tendency toward aggression may develop into a full blown criminal if it is triggered. The reciprocal-gene-environment perspective suggests that there is a close relationship between biological or genetic vulnerability and life events such that each continuously influences the other. Albert Bandura has contended that aggressive behaviors are acquired through the following: bizarre beliefs, observation of others, direct experiences that have either positive or negative reinforcements, instructions or trainings (1986). Once the aggressive behavior has been established due to these different cited causal factors, the behavior has been done or executed due to the following reasons: they experience pleasure or enjoyment upon inflicting pain to other people (positive reinforcement that strengthens and increases the probability of repeating the behavior), they try to avoid the consequences of aggression done by other people (negative reinforcement), they experience punishment or injury or harm when the aggressive behavior has not been performed, they have live up or inculcated their aggressive behavior in their way of living, they have observe others who receive rewards or reinforcement in doing aggressive behaviors (Feist, J and Feist G., 2002). This implies that aggre ssion is learned. Thus, children can learn aggressive behaviors through their interaction and observation from the environment. The argument above that states the genetic factor in developing aggressive behaviors by which can be developed into criminal behaviors have been supported by Plomin which states that: suggests that behavioral genetics must become a prime component within the study of psychology in the future, not in the traditional and much criticized sense of genetic determinism but because behavioral genetic research provides the strongest available evidence for the importance of environmental factors. Furthermore, he added that most behavioral disorders reveal some genetic influence, in fact rather more so than common medical disorders, but that the exact nature of the genotype-environment correlations will require sensitive and sophisticated analysis. Intervention is then more likely to involve changes to the environment rather than genetic engineering (2001). It has been proven through scientific test that the color of the eye and hair, and other traits were product of a genes embedded in human cell. Nature Theory states that even abstract traits such as intelligence, aggression, personality, temperament and more, are traits that could be inherited due to individuals DNA. On the other hand, the nurture theory states that the behavioral aspects of person are products of individuals interaction with the environment. Although neither behavior nor mental disorders are determined exclusively by the genes, there is substantial evidence that many mental disorders show some genetic influence. Thus the many recent studies suggesting that heredity is an important predisposing causal factor for a number of different disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, and alcoholism are consistent to biological viewpoint. (e.g., Plomin, De Fries, et. al., 1997, 2001). The evidence from twin studies indicate that genetic influences accounts an approximate 40% personality traits and 60% environment interaction (Bouchard, 1999; Loehlin Nicholls, 1976; Plomin, Chipeur, Loehlin, 1990). Previous researches and studies have identified that brain abnormalities is a great contributing factor of aggressive behavior and other psychopathology (Raine, 1993). While other studies have tried to established correlation between serotonin levels and aggression. Findings of this study could not prove that the levels of serotonin and aggression werent enough stimuli that could lead a person to commit crime or violence (Meloy, 1988; Raine, 1993). On the other side, in the study conducted by Lykken have demonstrated that there were several factors or stimuli from the environment that could lead to violence. And these factors includes the following: sexual harassments or exposure to x- rated movies, peers, family discord, neglect, abuse and more. These factors were all stimulus that could condition a person to respond violently to his behavior (1995). Genetic influences rarely express themselves in a simple and straightforward manner. This is because behavior, unlike some physical characteristics such as eye color, is not determined exclusively by genetic endowment. In other words, genes can only affect behavior indirectly. Though the evidence is quite considerable, the result is not conclusive, for the environment takes its role as well. Given that all personality traits have a substantial heritable component, evidence that a given trait is heritable provides relatively little information (Turkheimer, 1998). The value of evidence of heritability in clarifying personality structure is also limited by the fact that heritability explains only the variation in a single trait. Information on heritability does, however, provide the foundation for understanding the etiology of personality. The persons total genetic endowment is referred to as his or her genotype. The observed structural and functional characteristics that result from an interaction of genotype and the environment are referred to as phenotype. In many other cases, genotype may shape the environment experiences a child has, thus affecting the phenotype in yet another very important way. For example, a child who is genetically predisposed to aggressive behavior may be rejected by his or her peers in early grades because of his or her aggressive behavior. Such rejection may lead the child to go to an associate with similarly aggressive and delinquent peers in later grades, leading to an increased of likelihood of developing a full-blown pattern of delinquency in adolescence and eventually may lead to criminal behavior. This only shows the interaction between the heredity and environment, that these two theories do determine the development of criminality among humans. We cannot discount the importance of the other. The effects of heredity and environment are difficult to untangle. For one thing, human beings continue developing throughout life and the development generally reflects a combination of the two forces. Also, the mechanisms by which environment operates cannot be described as precisely heredity. Nor can controlled comparisons be made, since no two children not even twins growing up in the same household have exactly the same environment (Papalia, 2001). This also shows that the association between genetic or nature and environmental or nurture factors is fundamentally intertwined. Certain behaviors even personality disorders and criminal behaviors illustrate the interrelationship of heredity and environment. There is evidence for a strong hereditary influence on alcoholism, aggression and depression. They all tend run in the families and to show greater concordance between monozygotic twins and dizygotic twins. However, heredity alone does not produce such behaviors; an inherited tendency can be triggered by environmental factors. People who usually commit crimes have a history of law-breaking activities during their childhood, they were exposed and genetically predisposed to it. Parents of aggressive individuals tended to be hostile. Thus, since a tendency toward aggression maybe inherited, the environment can accentuate or modify the tendency. Some aggressive individual, especially those who are not extremely aggressive, may become more considerate and less violent in response to parents efforts to help them to become more understanding and less destructive. We cannot conclusively state that criminality is solely inherited. No new evidence has substantiated that. Similarly, we cannot also conclude that this is due to environmental influences. Some behaviors are inherited however the expression of such depends upon the environment. The expression of a particular behavior such as criminal behavior might be genetic in nature however, it depends on the environment the expression of which. If the individual is predisposed in this kind of conducts he is most likely to elicit the same behavior from which he is exposed. For instance, people may become criminals if they are genetically predisposed into it and was exposed in an environment which exhibits that kind of behavior. Moreover, genes do not typically operate without influence from the environment. Research has emphasized the importance of gene-environment interactions. Genes do their work via the environment. They cannot be separated from one another. All theories of criminal behavior try to address the question of why people commit crime on the assumption that such a course of action merits explanation of the inexplicable, that criminals are somehow different from the rest of us, and that there might be a single cause of criminal behavior. Thus a child born with some potential to offend may, depending upon their family environment, come to realize that potential or not. The discovery that our genetic make-up may not be as complex as was once believed suggests that the interaction between genetic vulnerability and environmental protection has become even more worthy of investigation. People are not born criminals, but they may build up into ones if they are raised in an environment that encourages them to do criminal acts. If someone has parents who are criminals and he/she looks up to them, then there is a great possibility that he/she will be a criminal also. However, one of the major reasons offenders commit crime is simply because they enjoy it. (Katz, 1988) has spoken of the seductions of crime, while another study (Hodge, McMurran and Hollin 1997) refers to criminal behavior as an addiction. Some psychologists do believe that criminal behaviors are just a mere result of some psychological disorders, such as anti-social personality disorder and obsessive compulsive personality disorder. People who are serial killers or just plain criminals may have a psychological disorder that causes them to act in the way that they do, but there are plenty criminals and killers out there that do not have any sort of psychological disorder to explain why they do what they do. Criminals may start a psychological addiction to unlawful activities at their young age. But their criminal behaviors could still be corrected or improved through proper care. This proper care should be given be the persons support group (including the family and friends and other concerned agencies) so that adequate care will be provided. Conclusion Question on criminals behavior has become a long topic of debate among psychologist particularly on the issue of criminal behavior as a nature or nurture. The relationship between the two is direct. This states that their functions or effects are intertwined. One can affect the other, which means the presence of environmental factors could stimulate the genetic traits of a person.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy

Women who smoke is one of the major causes of adverse outcomes for babies. Many damaging effects are due to mothers who smoke compared to mothers who did not. Encouraging and educating women early of the dangers of the detrimental effects of smoking during pregnancy will help reduce the number of complications and increase the health for both mother and baby. By conducting studies and evaluating these methods will allow us to gather the necessary data to improve and implement programs to help develop a pregnancy that is safe and decrease the health risks from the baby. Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking has been known to cause health problems for those who smoke and also for those exposed around them, known as second hand smoke. One known common health issue is cancer among those who smoke. Smoking during pregnancy doesn’t just affect the mother’s health, but also puts the fetus’s health at risk. The dangers associated with smoking during pregnancy include miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), birth defects (such as cleft lip or cleft palate), and even death (CDC, 2012). Creating a healthy environment for babies by quitting smoking will reduce the risk for these health risks. The baby will benefit from a healthy delivery and be less at risk of being born too early. Studies have also shown Statistics of Mothers who smoke According to the CDC in the 2008 Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS), women who reported smoking during the last three months of pregnancy is approximately 13%. Out of women who smoked 3 months before pregnancy, 45% were able to quit during pregnancy. Among women who quit smoking during pregnancy, 50% relapsed within 6 months after delivery. Women who smoked during pregnancy have babies with lower birth rates in comparison to mothers who did not smoke. The leading cause of infant deaths is low birth weight, within the United States results in more than 300,000 deaths annually (CDC, 2012). Research Question What interventions should be implemented to stop women from smoking during pregnancy? And what can benefit both mother and baby from avoid complications during pregnancy, delivery and their overall health. A method of educating women early of the dangers of the detrimental health effects that smoking causes on their own health and the health of their babies will create a foundation that will encourage them to quit. Creating a program that will evaluate and support women during and after their pregnancy will help encourage them to remain committed. Hypothesis Creating a smoking cessation intervention in pregnancy will help women stop smoking. This will help reduce the health risks associated with smoking among mothers who smoke during pregnancy. Educating and encouraging women to quit smoking will act as a support in the challenges that they may face. Problems in the Health Care One problem that health care faces with smoking cessation for women that are pregnant is the lack of training among professionals. Educating women of the dangers of smoking during pregnancy is the first step, but following up with the proper interventions and material used to help women understand and motivated. Another problem is the challenges that women face in the attempts of quitting. Smoking creates an addiction among those who smoke due to its chemicals that it possesses. Nicotine is the substance in smoking that creates this addiction. This addiction is a form of uncontrollable dependence in tobacco smoking to the point where severe physical, mental or emotional reactions would be caused by the stopping of smoking (Slowik, 2011). Knowing the effects of smoke to ones health and especially to a babies health is very motivating in quitting, but it isn’t easy when the addict possess the challenges to stop. One in three succeeds in stopping permanently before age 60 (Slowik, 2011). Tragically, by this time, the effect of smoking has already damaged the body and some could be irreversible. Research methods used in the health sciences, and their strengths and weaknesses The research in helping women to stop smoking is in surveying pregnant women who smoke. The qualitative method is to evaluate and analysis the results. A questionnaire survey in 1992 was carried out among general practitioners, midwives and obstetricians to measure the delivery of smoking cessation interventions in pregnancy. Most professionals among the study were seen asking the status of pregnant women, where they recorded smoking status and explained the risks of smoking during pregnancy. Fewer professionals gave advice to women on how to quit or document the status of smoking (Clasper & White, 1995). The weakness found in the study is the lack or insufficient training among the professionals. Even the lack of enjoyment or difficultly experienced in giving smoking cessation counseling was seen in the survey. The strength in this study is on step in creating a guidebook or manual for health professionals. Such as the Pregnets, Smoking Cessation for Pregnant and Post-partum women: A Toolkit for Health Professionals. This toolkit is designed as a guidebook for professionals in creating a smoking cessation for pregnant women as well as after the delivery of the baby. This helps create success in achieving the goal of encouraging women to stop smoking. After this program has been implemented studies within this method could be conducted with both qualitative and quantitative methods. Statistical data can be gathered to updated and make changes to existing material. Conclusion By gathering data in studies a successful smoking cessation could be created for women who are pregnant will reduce the health risk associated with smoking. Knowing the target individuals and creating methods in preventions and interventions in cessation smoking will help develop a successful program a safe and healthy pregnancy for mother and baby.ReferenceCenters for Disease Control and Prevention, (2012). Tobacco Use and Pregnancy What Are the Effects of Smoking During Pregnancy on the Health of Mothers and Their Babies? March 26, 2012. http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/tobaccousepregnancy/. Clasper, Paul & White, Martin. (1995). Smoking Cessation Interventions in Pregnancy: Practice and Views of Midwives, GPs and Obstetricians. Health Education Journal . March 27, 2012. http://hej.sagepub.com/content/54/2/150.abstract. Slowik, Guy MD. (2011). â€Å"What Is A Smoking Addiction?† EhealthMD. March 26, 2012. http://ehealthmd.com/content/what-smoking-addiction.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Assessment and Feedback Essay

Many of my lessons involve embedding literacy into a topic so it is more meaningful for the learners. There are various ways of assessing work which are used. One method that is used is initial assessment, where the learners at the beginning of their induction into our pre-16 program do an online BSKB initial assessment in Maths, English and ICT. This is to ensure that the learner is at the right level of learning. These tests are formative and convergent where choices of multiple choice questions give indications of gaps in the learner’s knowledge. Once the learner has  completed an initial assessment they are then given the diagnostic BSKB assessment to see what subject strengths and weaknesses they have. These learners tend not to have attended much school therefore it is difficult to assess the work they produce as very often little or no work is achieved. Assessment is about making a judgment to make sure that learning is taking place. It is about identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the learner so that the learner is progressing with the work that is set. Assessment in all forms that involve making a judgment and it includes an element of subjectivity by me. It should be objective, fair and transparent. It plays an important role in the education process as it determines the work students undertake and affects their approach to learning. There are varying degrees of assessment that are designed primarily to serve the purposes of accountability, or of ranking, or of certifying competence. However, an assessment activity can help learning if it provides information that I can use and can give students feedback. Feedback can be used to modify teaching and learning activities in which the learners are engaged in. Such assessment becomes formative when  the evidence is actually used to adapt the teaching work to meet learning needs. Much of what teachers and learners do in the classroom is assessment based. Tasks and questions prompt learners to demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and skills. How the learners respond and interpret this can give indications of how their learning can be improved. Verbal feedback and discussion tends to be the main method that I use where opinions can be discussed and attainment of knowledge can be assessed during lessons. This is classed as affective learning where topics can gain an emotional response or a tone of interest/values that the  learner may have prior knowledge or experience. These types of responses are 1 usually focused on the learner’s feelings, and they are often difficult to measure in quantifiable terms. However, in my classroom, I want the learners to feel that their work is valued and that the effort has been worthwhile. During lessons, informal assessment is the preferred choice for me and my pre-16 colleague as students are wary of tests or exams. The reason for this maybe the learner’s previous experience of learning or the fact that they feel vulnerable when the word test, exam or assessment occurs within the learning environment. Informal assessment is easily incorporated into classroom routines and learning activities. It can be used at any time without interfering with teaching. The results give indication of the learner’s performance on the skill or subject of interest. However, it is not intended to give a broader view of the learner’s ability apart from the lesson that took place. This is not to say that informal assessment is spontaneous or absent from accuracy. Formal tests assume a single set of expectations for all students and come with prescribed criteria for scoring and interpretation. Informal assessment, on  the other hand, requires a clear understanding of the levels of ability the students bring with them. Only then may assessment activities be selected that students can attempt reasonably. Measuring the validity and reliability of informal assessments is achieved by expected goals and objectives outcomes. Once the work is completed, I assess the knowledge that the learners have gained by their attempted completion of the tasks. Scoring procedures can be used to measure progress and achievement in content areas and literacy skills can be measured by oral, reading and written work. Reliability is a statistical measure of which we can trust the results of a given writing test. Reliability estimations and their interpretations will vary according to particular assessment contexts and purposes. In real practice, high score reliability is indeed necessary and feasible in large-scale assessment, where the actual tests are the main source of interpretable information. In more local contexts (e. g. classrooms), reliability measurements are to a great extent unfeasible and, simultaneously, other sources for qualitative evaluation are available. The work that the learners produced enabled me to assess their level of  understanding and also their literacy progress. Feedback was given in written format on the activity worksheet, to identify strengths and weaknesses of each individual 2 learner. All the learners attempted the worksheet and I gave feedback in the format of Petty (2004) medals and missions. Medals (sometimes called positive reinforcement) are given when the learner has done something well, such as spellings or written something in their own words although most of the learners just wrote down what was on the computer screen. This was what I commented on as missions where the learners need to improve, correct or work upon. Written tasks, alongside oral questioning, should encourage students to develop and show understanding of the key features of what they have learned. Opportunities are given during lessons for the learners to respond to comments made about their work and advice is given on what areas they are struggling on. The key point to feedback is for it to be effective and for the learners to think about the good and bad points in their work and that clear goals can be achieved. The negative aspect of feedback for disaffected learners is that low self-esteem influences their reaction to feedback. Building self-esteem and confidence is one of the main aspects in my classroom. Low self-esteem can knock confidence and ability and their previous experiences of learning can have a considerable impact on their academic ability. In this environment learners are in a vulnerable position and in some cases their low esteem can be forgotten by teachers due to distractions and challenging behaviour. The comments I make have to be sensitive and constructive so that the comments do not impact on the learner’s self-esteem and confidence. The comments are to be constructive and build on their learning capabilities. When I  ask the learners whether or not they understood the feedback given regarding their work, the learners give the appearance that they are not bothered about the feedback or acted disinterested. Students find the feedback messages hard to understand and complex in their meaning especially in the written form. However, when feedback is used as dialogue within the lesson it provides opportunities for feedback and feedforward. This is a good scenario as the learner responds to initial feedback with their opinions. This gives the chance for the teacher to help the learners develop their understanding and has an instant response in correcting  misunderstandings. Although, the response to verbal feedback regarding the learners knowledge, skills and understanding is feasible in the classroom, further development of feedback and feedforward is required so that the student can improve and grow in their 3 understanding of the subject and true learning has taken place. When I assess a learner this has an impact on my teaching. The feedback I get from the students gives me the opportunity to reflect on my practices and adjust accordingly so that the learners are engaged, focused and completing the tasks given during lessons. However, learners’ indifference to learning and feedback can cloud my judgement about what I am doing right or wrong. In my sessions I need to develop the dual narrative where the learners work together as a group but also there are one to one opportunities. This would work towards full differentiation where students are working independently but within a whole group setting. This has been difficult to achieve yet it is possible; progress has been made with the learners providing work that can be assessed verbally or written. However, it has taken six months to gain  trust, confidence and self-esteem of the learners to provide any work at all. Nonetheless, with a longer time restraint development of feedback and feedforward can be achieved. The learners need to see feedback as a reflection on their work not that it’s personal to them, the problem these learners face is to understand what feedback is and what its intentions are. The trouble is that once the disaffected learners arrive at Rathbone they already feel that school as failed them therefore feel disengaged with the learning environment. This can be a contributing factor to the way they feel towards assessments. The attitude towards motivating and engaging the learners towards learning objectives is a more social context. Therefore, the attitude of Rathbone and its staff is to gain confidence, trust and self-esteem so that learning is more enjoyable to them. This then becomes a platform for the learners to want to learn post 16. As their teacher, the environment is complex and challenging however I feel that the learners are starting to become aware of what is required of them in the classroom. This means that I am doing something right and that my assessments, judgement and feedback are starting to be acknowledged.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Cómo registrarse para votar en Estados Unidos

Para votar, 49 de los 50 estados de Estados Unidos exigen estar registrados, pero las leyes que regulan cà ³mo registrarse  son diferentes en cada estado. En este artà ­culo se especifica cuà ¡les son las opciones en cada uno de ellos. Por sus graves repercusiones conviene empezar subrayando cuà ¡les son las consecuencias de votar cuando no se tiene derecho. Castigo por votar en elecciones en Estados Unidos cuando no se tiene este derecho Solo los ciudadanos estadounidenses mayores de 18 aà ±os no incapacitados legalmente pueden votar en Estados Unidos. Si un extranjero vota està ¡ cometiendo una violacià ³n migratoria grave que puede ser castigada con la deportacià ³n, incluso en los casos en los que el votante fuera un residente permanente legal. El derecho de los ciudadanos a votar puede estar suspendido temporalmente. Por ejemplo, cuando està ¡n en prisià ³n. Las reglas de cada estado establecen cà ³mo y cuà ¡ndo se recupera ese derecho, asà ­ como si afecta o no a las personas condenadas pero en libertad condicional  o que han recibido un parole. Votar cuando la ley del estado lo prohà ­be puede estar castigado con pena de prisià ³n, por lo que si alguna vez se ha sido condenado por algà ºn delito o falta es altamente recomendable verificar las reglas que aplican en el estado  donde  vive. Es una falta grave brindar informacià ³n falsa en las planillas para registrarse para votar. Los ciudadanos americanos que habitualmente viven en otro paà ­s pueden conservan su derecho a votar en las elecciones estadounidenses. En la mayorà ­a de los estados es posible registrarse en el Departamento de Vehà ­culos Motorizados cuando se tiene que ir a esa agencia en persona a realizar trà ¡mites para sacar o renovar la licencia de manejar o registrar un vehà ­culo. Tambià ©n en muchos estados es posible ver en la calle mesas de inscripcià ³n de votantes, por ejemplo, a la salida de los lugares donde tiene lugar las ceremonias de naturalizacià ³n. Son todas legales y es posible registrarse en ese momento. Cà ³mo registrarse para votar en los 10 estados con mà ¡s poblacià ³n latina   Estas son las reglas en cada uno  de los 10 estados con mà ¡s poblacià ³n latina en orden decreciente: California En California la  inscripcià ³n para votar puede hacerse online  o por correo ordinario. En el primer caso es necesario tener a mano el nà ºmero de identificacià ³n (I.D.) o de la licencia de manejar de California y el nà ºmero del seguro social. Para registrase por correo, debe  llenar el  National Mail Voter Registration Form  y enviarlo a la direccià ³n indicada en ese formulario. Para votar en California es necesario registrarse al menos 15 dà ­as antes de celebracià ³n de las elecciones. Texas Solo es posible registrarse para votar en Texas enviando un formulario oficial a la direccià ³n que aparece en el mismo y  que puede obtenerse en cualquiera de las siguientes oficinas:  Voter Register  del condado en el que se vive, oficina del Secretario de Estado, bibliotecas pà ºblicas,  escuelas secundarias  y muchas oficinas de correos. En ese formulario se exige escribir uno de los siguientes tres nà ºmeros: licencia de manejar de Texas, nà ºmero del seguro social o nà ºmero de identificacià ³n personal del  Texas Department of Public Safety. Si no se tiene ninguno de esos tres nà ºmeros, para votar serà ¡ necesario mostrar una identificacià ³n.  El formulario oficial debe ser enviado como mà ­nimo 30 dà ­as antes de las elecciones. Texas es, ademà ¡s, un estado en el que los ciudadanos naturalizados que utilizaron la licencia de manejar como I.D. para registrarse han sido excluidos de los listados de votantes registrados. Ese es uno de los problemas que pueden encontrase los migrantes en Texas. Florida Para votar hay que registrarse al menos 29 dà ­as antes de las elecciones llenando el formulario  DS-DE 39  y envià ¡ndolo por correo a la oficina supervisora de las elecciones en el condado en el que se reside. El formulario tambià ©n puede presentarse en persona en cualquier biblioteca pà ºblica, oficina de reclutamiento de soldados, oficina electoral o en las de  FLHSMV  (Departamento de Vehà ­culos Motorizados de Florida). Nueva York Este estado permite  registrarse online, pero en este caso es necesario que el distrito para el cual el votante desea registrarse tenga el mismo cà ³digo postal que aparece en la licencia de manejar. Tambià ©n es posible hacerlo por correo, completando  el formulario de inscripcià ³n  (disponible en espaà ±ol) o en persona, utilizando esa misma planilla y presentà ¡ndose en la oficina electoral del condado  donde  se vive. Illinois Para registrarse en Illinois se pide residencia en ese estado por al menos 30 dà ­as. Para votar, la inscripcià ³n debe hacerse al menos 27 dà ­as antes de las elecciones. Es posible registrarse en persona en la Oficina del Comisionado Electoral del distrito en el que se reside, en las oficinas del Secretario del Condado, municipales o de reclutamiento de soldados. Tambià ©n es posible hacerlo en las escuelas o en las bibliotecas pà ºblicas. Ademà ¡s, se admite la posibilidad de registrarse por correo, enviando la planilla de la Aplicacià ³n para Registrarse como votante en Illinois conocida como  Form SBE R-19  a la oficina electoral del condado  donde se reside o a la central del estado. Es necesario enviar una copia de dos documentos para probar la identidad y residencia en el estado. Finalmente, tambià ©n es posible  la inscripcià ³n online. Arizona En Arizona es necesario registrase al menos 29 dà ­as antes de las elecciones y ese dà ­a se exige mostrar una I.D. para poder votar. Ademà ¡s, para registrarse es imprescindible mostrar un documento que acredite la ciudadanà ­a estadounidense como, por ejemplo, el pasaporte de EE.UU., el certificado de naturalizacià ³n o el certificado de nacimiento. La inscripcià ³n puede hacerse en persona en la oficina del  County Register  o por correo, enviando a esa oficina el formulario.  Tambià ©n puede hacerse online, pero solo si el estado tiene previamente en rà ©cord la firma digital del solicitante o por correo ordinario. Nueva Jersey Es necesario residir en ese estado por al menos 30 dà ­as para registrarse para votar y  utilizar un formulario  que debe ser entregado en las oficinas de las agencias estatales o enviado a las oficinas electorales locales. Tambià ©n puede entregarse en los despachos de reclutamiento del ejà ©rcito en ese estado. Colorado El estado de Colorado es uno de los que mà ¡s opciones brinda para registrarse al  admitir las modalidades online, por correo ordinario, email, fax, o en persona. En este à ºltimo caso, debe presentarse a las oficinas de reclutamiento militar, asistencia pà ºblica estatal, secretario del condado  donde se reside, Departamento de Vehà ­culos Motorizados o centros de votacià ³n y servicio  al votante.   En todas las instancias, excepto  online, es necesario completar  el formulario  Colorado Voter Registration Form  (Form  100). Nuevo Mà ©xico Es necesario hacerlo al menos 28 dà ­as antes de las elecciones. El trà ¡mite se puede efectuar en la oficina del secretario del condado  en persona o por correo, o en el Departamento de Vehà ­culos Motorizados al solicitar la licencia de manejar, renovarla o cambiar algà ºn dato. Georgia En este estado es posible  registrarse online  o por correo. Solo es posible hacerlo en persona en las oficinas del Departamento de Vehà ­culos Motorizados cuando se saca la licencia de manejar por primera vez o se renueva. La tarjeta de registracià ³n se recibe en un plazo de 4 semanas, pero para votar es necesario, ademà ¡s, mostrar una I.D. con foto, como la licencia de manejar, pasaporte estadounidense, I.D. de empleado del gobierno federal, estatal o local, I.D. militar o de una tribu indà ­gena o una I.D. de votante, emitido por el estado de Georgia a las personas que no tienen ninguna de las identificaciones seà ±aladas. Cà ³mo registrase para votar en el resto de los estados, por orden alfabà ©tico Alabama En Alabama, la inscripcià ³n tiene que realizarse al menos 14 dà ­as antes de las elecciones admitià ©ndose las formas online o por correo ordinario. En este à ºltimo caso, debe llenar el State of Alabama Mail-In Voter Registration Form  (Form NVRA-2)  y enviarlo a la oficina local del Board of Registrars. Tambià ©n es posible registrarse en persona en cualquier oficina local del Board of Registrars, bibliotecas pà ºblicas, agencias de Medicaid y en el Departamento de Recursos Humanos. Ademà ¡s de registrarse, el dà ­a de la votacià ³n debe presentar una I.D. con foto como, por ejemplo, la  tarjeta de I.D. o licencia de manejar de Alabama, pasaporte de EE.UU., tarjeta tribal, I.D. de votante, tarjeta de empleado o estudiante de una universidad pà ºblica o privada, o tarjeta militar. Alaska Las opciones para registrarse son online, por correo o en persona. En estas dos à ºltimas opciones, debe enviar la planilla  State of Alaska Voter Registration Application  (Form C03)  a la oficina local de la Divisià ³n de Elecciones, con copia de certificado de nacimiento, pasaporte de EE.UU., tarjeta I.D. o licencia de manejar de Alaska. Arkansas Solo es posible registrase en persona en la oficina del secretario del condado o por correo enviando el formulario a la direccià ³n consignada en el mismo. Es necesario indicar el nà ºmero de la licencia de manejar de ese estado o los cuatro à ºltimos nà ºmeros del seguro social. Carolina del Norte Es necesario registrarse al menos 25 dà ­as antes de las elecciones. Es posible hacerlo por fax, email, correo o en persona en las oficinas del Departamento de Vehà ­culos Motorizados (DMV) o de las agencias estatales de empleo, salud mental, salud pà ºblica o incapacidad. En todos los casos es imprescindible completar el  formulario oficial de inscripcià ³n. Carolina del Sur Para votar en Carolina del Sur es necesario registrarse como mà ­nimo 30 dà ­as antes de las elecciones. Es posible hacerlo online, en persona, presentà ¡ndose en una oficina del Board of Registration del condado  donde se vive o del Departamento de Vehà ­culos Motorizados. Finalmente, tambià ©n se admite la posibilidad de registrarse por correo, llenando el formulario del  South Carolina Voter Registration Mail Application  y envià ¡ndolo a la oficina local del Board of Registration. Ademà ¡s, para poder votar, es necesario proporcionar al estado de Carolina del Sur una I.D. con foto para que pueda guardarse  en sus archivos. Si no se tiene una licencia de manejar de ese estado, es necesario obtener una tarjeta de votante, para lo cual es necesario probar con otra documentacià ³n los siguientes puntos: identidad, fecha de nacimiento, ciudadanà ­a estadounidense, residencia en Carolina del Sur y nà ºmero del seguro social. Connecticut Es posible registrarse online  o por correo completando el formulario  State of Connecticut Mail-In Voter Registration y envià ¡ndolo al ayuntamiento de la localidad  donde se reside. En esos edificios tambià ©n se admite la inscripcià ³n en persona. En el estado de Connecticut es posible registrarse el mismo dà ­a de las elecciones, pero no en los lugares donde se vota, sino que se exige presentarse antes en el  Registrar of Voters  local con una  I.D. y un documento que muestre la direccià ³n  donde  se reside. Dakota del Norte Este estado no tiene inscripcià ³n previa para votar en las elecciones. El dà ­a de los comicios, los ciudadanos deben mostrar una identificacià ³n que pruebe su nombre completo, fecha de nacimiento y residencia mà ­nima de 30 dà ­as en Dakota del Norte. Dakota del Sur Para votar es necesario registrarse al menos 15 dà ­as antes de las elecciones. Es posible hacerlo completando un formulario y envià ¡ndolo a la oficina local del auditor del condado. Otra opcià ³n es presentarse en una oficina local del auditor del condado, del Departamento de Vehà ­culos Motorizados, oficinas de gestià ³n de los cupones de alimentos o de Recursos Humanos, o agencias de reclutamiento de soldados. Delaware En Delaware es posible registrarse por telà ©fono, en persona en las oficinas estatales de Servicios Sociales y Salud, Departamento de Vehà ­culos Motorizados o Departamento de Trabajo, o por correo, enviando la aplicacià ³n a la direccià ³n que figura en esa planilla. Para registrarse por primera vez hay que enviar o mostrar una I.D. del estado o la licencia de manejar y, si no se tiene, la tarjeta del Seguro Social. Ademà ¡s, debe mostrar un documento que acredite residencia actual, como cheque que se recibe del gobierno, factura de la electricidad, extracto bancario, etc. Hawaii En Hawaii es posible registrarse online, para lo cual debe tener a mano una ID. del estado o la licencia de manejar y la tarjeta del nà ºmero del Seguro Social. Tambià ©n puede hacerse por correo, llenando la planilla del Voter Registration and Permanent Absentee Form  o en persona en ayuntamientos, oficinas de correo, bibliotecas pà ºblicas, agencias estatales o en los campus del sistema estatal de la Universidad de Hawaii. Idaho En Idaho solo es posible registrarse en persona o por correo llenando la planilla Form ERM-1. Las personas que se registran por primera vez deben  enviar o presentar copia de una I.D. o copia de una factura de servicios pà ºblicos, nà ³mina o extracto bancario en el que aparezca reflejada la direccià ³n del votante. Para registrarse es necesario haber vivido en el distrito  donde se quiere votar por al menos 30 dà ­as.   Indiana Para registrarse hay que probar que se ha residido en el distrito  donde se quiere votar por al menos 30 dà ­as. Es posible hacerlo en persona, por correo o tambià ©n online. El dà ­a de las elecciones  serà ¡ necesario mostrar una I.D. estatal o federal en la que el nombre coincida exactamente con el del registro de votantes. Iowa   En Iowa se requiere registrarse al menos 11 dà ­as antes de las elecciones y solo es posible hacerlo en persona o enviando el formulario de inscripcià ³n  por correo a la oficina local del Departamento de Vehà ­culos Motorizados o a la del auditor del condado  donde se reside. Kansas Para votar en Kansas hay que registrarse al menos 21 dà ­as antes de las elecciones. Es posible hacerlo en persona, online, fax, email o correo ordinario. En cualquier caso, se exige prueba de la ciudadanà ­a estadounidense, como puede ser el pasaporte, el certificado de naturalizacià ³n, etc. Kentucky Las personas con residencia en Kentucky por al menos 28 dà ­as pueden registrarse para votar en dicho estado por correo, en persona o utilizando un formulario electrà ³nico.   Louisiana Es posible registrarse en persona, por correo o por internet. En este à ºltimo caso, el formulario pide un cà ³digo Audit. Para encontrarlo, debe buscar en la licencia de manejar o I.D. emitido por ese estado. Maine Es obligatorio completar el formulario de inscripcià ³n  que puede enviarse por correo o presentarse en persona en las oficinas del registro municipal del lugar  donde se vive, en las oficinas del Departamento de Vehà ­culos Motorizados o cualquiera agencia estatal o federal. Maryland Este estado permite registrarse a los ciudadanos con residencia durante al menos 21 dà ­as. Puede  realizarse online, en persona o por correo. En algunos casos, a los votantes por primera vez se les puede solicitar una I.D. que puede ser la licencia de manejar, tarjeta militar o de estudiante, pasaporte de Estados Unidos o una factura de un servicio pà ºblico de los à ºltimos tres meses.   Massachusetts Este estado permite la inscripcià ³n online, en persona o por correo para los ciudadanos con al menos 16 aà ±os cumplidos, sin embargo, solo se puede votar a partir de los 18. Michigan Este estado exige residencia previa por 30 dà ­as para permitir la inscripcià ³n, que puede hacerse en persona o por correo en las oficinas del Secretario del Condado. Ademà ¡s, el dà ­a de las elecciones debe presentar una I.D. con foto, como la licencia de manejar de ese estado o una tarjeta militar. Si no se tiene, es necesario firmar una declaracià ³n jurada. Minnesota Para registrarse en ese estado es necesario residir en à ©l al menos 20 dà ­as antes de la inscripcià ³n. Puede hacerse online, por correo o en persona en la oficina del secretario del condado. Incluso es posible registrarse el dà ­a de las elecciones en el lugar de votacià ³n. Mississippi Este estado exige residencia por un mà ­nimo de 30 dà ­as antes de registrarse. Es posible hacerlo completando el formulario y envià ¡ndolo a la oficina del Secretario del Condado  donde se reside. Missouri La forma para registrarse es por correo, enviando el formulario de inscripcià ³n a la oficina del Secretario del Condado  donde se reside. Montana Montana exige una residencia mà ­nima de 30 dà ­as para permitir la inscripcià ³n y, a diferencia de otros estados, no permite hacerlo online. Las opciones son por correo,  enviando un formulario  a la oficina  electoral del condado  donde se reside (cuya direccià ³n està ¡ en ese formulario), o presentà ¡ndose en persona en dicha oficinas. Nebraska Es posible registrarse online, por correo o en persona. En estos dos à ºltimos casos, es necesario llenar un formulario especà ­fico. En el primer caso, se exige tener licencia de manejar o una I.D. de ese estado. Nevada Para registrarse en Nevada se exige ser residente de ese estado por un mà ­nimo de 30 dà ­as y de un mà ­nimo de 10 dà ­as en el distrito donde se va a votar. Es posible registrarse en persona o por correo  en las oficinas del Departamento de Vehà ­culos Motorizados. Tambià ©n se admite hacerlo online en espaà ±ol, pero es necesario tener una licencia de manejar o una I.D. de ese estado. Nuevo Hampshire Para registrarse hay que probar identidad, residencia en el estado, edad y ciudadanà ­a estadounidense. Como lugares para registrase se admiten las oficinas del secretario de la ciudad o el propio lugar de votacià ³n el dà ­a de las elecciones. Ohio Para votar en las elecciones, los residentes de Ohio deben registrarse para votar al menos 30 dà ­as antes de la fecha electoral. Es posible hacerlo online. Tambià ©n es posible hacerlo en cualquier oficina del Departamento de Vehà ­culos Motorizados cuando se tiene una cita para obtener la licencia de manejar, su renovacià ³n o para notificar cambios de nombre o de direccià ³n. Oklahoma Los residentes en Oklahoma deben  completar el formulario oficial  para registrarse para votar al menos 24 dà ­as antes de las elecciones. Se les pide el nà ºmero de la licencia de manejar de ese estado y, si no la tienen, el nà ºmero del Seguro Social. Oregà ³n Los residentes en el estado de Oregà ³n pueden registrarse a partir de los 16 aà ±os, aunque solo se puede votar a partir de los 18. Los nuevos ciudadanos estadounidenses deben gozar de ese estatus por al menos 21 dà ­as antes de registrarse.   Para registrarse existen varias opciones: online en espaà ±ol, para lo que es necesario tener a mano la licencia de manejar o licencia de identificacià ³n de ese estado, en persona en la oficina electoral del condado donde se reside, o por correo, enviando la planilla SEL 500 a la oficina electoral del condado. Tambià ©n puede  registrarse cuando saca la licencia de manejar. Pensilvania Los residentes en  Pensilvania por un mà ­nimo de 30 dà ­as pueden registrarse para votar en cualquier oficina del Departamento de Vehà ­culos o por Internet rellenando el formulario del Departamento de Estado de Pensilvania. Se exige a los nuevos ciudadanos al menos un mes antes de la fecha de la votacià ³n para estar autorizados a votar. Rhode Island Aunque no se puede votar antes de cumplir los 18 aà ±os, es posible registrarse para votar a partir de los 16. Puede hacer online o por correo ordinario enviando el formulario  Rhode Island Voter Registration Form o el  National Voter Registration Form a la oficina del Board of Canvassess del condado donde se reside.   Tambià ©n se admite la inscripcià ³n  en persona entregando cualquiera de esos dos formularios en el Board of Canvassess o en una oficina local del Departamento de Vehà ­culos Motorizados (RI DMV). Finalmente, Rhode Island exige registrarse un mà ­nimo de 30 dà ­as antes de las elecciones para poder votar. Tennessee Para votar en las prà ³ximas elecciones es necesario registrarse al menos 30 dà ­as antes. Puede hacerse enviando el formulario de inscripcià ³n a la oficina local de la comisià ³n electoral del condado donde se reside. La otra opcià ³n es presentarse en una de las siguientes oficinas: oficina del secretario del condado, bibliotecas pà ºblicas, registro civil (Register of Deeds), Departamento de Salud en el à ¡rea de gestià ³n del programa WIC, departamentos de veteranos, recursos humanos, salud mental o vehà ­culos motorizados. Utah En Utah es posible inscribirse online hasta 7 dà ­as antes de las elecciones. Tambià ©n es posible enviando el formulario State of Utah Mail-In Voter Registration Form a la oficina del secretario del condado donde se reside. Una tercera opcià ³n es registrarse en persona al menos 30 dà ­as antes de las elecciones en la oficina del secretario del condado, colleges o universidades pà ºblicas, oficinas del Departamento de Vehà ­culos Motorizados.   Vermont En Vermont es posible registrarse online, en persona en el Departamento de Vehà ­culos Motorizados cuando se realizan gestiones para sacar la licencia, renovarla, solicitar una inscripcià ³n  del auto o renovar una que ya se tiene. Tambià ©n es posible presentando el Vermont Application for Addition to the Checklist (VT Voter Registration)  (Form SOS-VR)  en la oficina del secretario de la ciudad o municipalidad, o envià ¡ndola por correo a la misma direccià ³n. Cualquiera que sea la forma que se elige para registrarse, es necesario presentar o enviar copia de uno de los siguientes tres documentos: licencia de manejar de Vermont, factura de un servicio pà ºblico, extracto bancario o un documento oficial del gobierno. Ademà ¡s, hay que jurar o prometer lo que se conoce como Juramento del Hombre Libre (Freeman ´s Oath, en inglà ©s). Virginia Para registrarse online es necesario enviar el nà ºmero del seguro social y de la licencia de manejar de ese estado. Tambià ©n es posible hacerlo en persona o por correo completando el formulario  Voter Registration Application  (Form VA-NVRA-1)  a la oficina local de inscripcià ³n  de voto. Finalmente, otra opcià ³n es presentarse en una oficina del Departamento de Vehà ­culos Motorizados. Virginia Occidental Es posible registrarse online, en persona en el Departamento de Vehà ­culos Motorizados, en la oficina del secretario del condado donde se reside o por correo ordinario, enviando un formulario oficial a la oficina del secretario del condado. La inscripcià ³n debe tener lugar al menos 21 dà ­as antes de las elecciones en las que se desea participar. Washington En el estado de Washington es posible registrarse online, en persona en las oficinas del Departamento de Vehà ­culos Motorizados o por correo, enviando el  Washington State Voter Registration Form a la oficina del condado donde se reside. Quienes se registran online o por correo deben hacerlo cuatro semanas antes del dà ­a de las elecciones. Sin embargo, quienes se registran en persona pueden hacerlo hasta siete  dà ­as antes de la celebracià ³n de los comicios. En el estado de Washington solo se vota por correo.   Wisconsin Es posible registrarse online  o por correo, completando el formulario  Application for Voter Registration  (Form EL-131)  y envià ¡ndolo al secretario municipal al menos 20 dà ­as antes de las elecciones. Tambià ©n es posible registrarse en persona en dicha oficina hasta las 5 p.m. del viernes anterior a las elecciones. En todos los casos es necesario presentar prueba de residencia en el estado y, ademà ¡s, una I.D. o licencia de manejar de Wisconsin y, si no se tiene, el nà ºmero del Seguro Social. Wyoming Es posible registrarse en persona en la oficina del secretario del condado o por correo llenando el  Wyoming Voter Registration Application and Change Form, firmà ¡ndolo ante un notario y envià ¡ndolo a la oficina del secretario del condado donde se vive.   Es todos los casos es necesario probar la identidad, para lo cual se admite cualquiera de los siguientes documentos: licencia de manejar de Wyoming, pasaporte de Estados Unidos o I.D. militar o de una escuela. Finalmente, tambià ©n es posible registrarse el dà ­a de las elecciones en el colegio electoral. A tener en cuenta Una vez que se registra una persona, no necesita volverlo a hacer a menos que cambie de nombre o de direccià ³n. En estos casos, es necesario notificar los cambios. Sin embargo, los ciudadanos condenados por un felonà ­a no pueden votar mientras cumplen sus sentencias. Cada estado establece sus propias reglas sobre cuà ¡ndo pueden volver a votar: cumplimento de condena, de parole, o libertad condicional (probation), de todas ellas o, incluso, ajustar la prohibicià ³n al tipo de crimen cometido. Por sus posibles graves consecuencias se recomienda no votar a las personas que han sido condenadas por una felonà ­a mientras no se verifique si se està ¡ autorizado a hacerlo.  ¿Por quà © es importante hacerse ciudadano? En Estados Unidos, mà ¡s de ocho millones de residentes permanentes legales califican para solicitar la ciudadanà ­a estadounidense por naturalizacià ³n. Las ventajas son muchas, no solo votar. Por ejemplo, protege frente a la deportacià ³n, amplà ­a los casos de familiares que pueden ser pedidos y agiliza los plazos e, incluso, abre categorà ­as de trabajos que està ¡n vedadas a quienes no son ciudadanos. Puntos Clave: registrarse para votar en EE.UU. Solo los ciudadanos estadounidenses pueden votar en las elecciones federales. Es un delito muy grave votar sin ser ciudadano con consecuencias migratorias serias.Para votar es necesario registrarse. Cada estado establece sus propias normas sobre requisitos, plazos y modos de hacerlo.Aproximadamente 6 millones de estadounidenses no pueden votar por haber sido condenados por una felonà ­a. Cada estado establece sus propias reglas para determinar en quà © momento se puede restaurar ese derecho.Florida es el estado con mà ¡s estadounidenses apartados del derecho a votar por haber cometido una felonà ­a: aproximadamente 1,5 millones. Este es un artà ­culo informativo. No es asesorà ­a legal.

Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Cinematic Codes in Moulin Rouge Essay - 1968 Words

Cinematic Codes in Moulin Rouge All four cinematic codes work together in a film to inform the audiences understanding of a film and to convey meaning and the ideology in a preferred reading favoured by the film-maker so that the audience interprets the film in the way intended. In the film Moulin Rouge (Luhrman, 2000, US) the cinematic codes, mise-en-scene, sound, cinematography and editing all work well together in the opening sequence to set up the film-makers preferred reading. The film opens with a conductor on a stage in a grand theatre, signifying a show which links well with the idea behind Moulin Rouge, informing the audience that it is like a show. The curtains behind the†¦show more content†¦The music is loud and orchestral, immediately capturing the audiences attention; the tempo is also quite slow to begin with. Suddenly changes to a song with a much faster tempo, The Can Can. This song is also a famous one and helps inform the audience that the film is set in Paris. All the way through this shot, the camera is slowly zooming in very slightly, and this camera movement helps to draw the audience into the action. It stops when the stage frames the shot perfectly. The song ends abruptly and as it does it links with the editing as Paris, 1900 appears on the screen to inform the audience of the time and place it is set. This shot then dissolves into a much darker shot, informing the audience that maybe this film isnt about the celebration of love, and that something sinister is going to happen, the sound also links well with this as it is quite melancholy, this song signifies to the audience that the story beginning to unfold is a tragic one. The character singing is directly addressing the audience as he narrates the story through song, and the contrast between the sound here and the sound in the previous shot is extremely noticeable as it is much more depressing. It is known as parallel sounds as it matches the action in the shot and emphasized by the morose characters and the shadowy lighting. The character singing is placed in the corner ofShow MoreRelatedGlee Essay9324 Words   |  38 Pagesand it has needed to introduce new strategies to survive. There are periods when it nearly disappeared before coming back in a new form (Hayward 2000). This essay is structured in such a way that it describes the periods of the genre and how its codes and conventions have been applied in each, and then analyses the main ideas from a social and theoretical point of view. But first, it may prove useful to discuss genre theory. Genre can be considered a strategy created by the cinema industry to identify